Big Day Tomorrow

0

Written on Saturday, May 31, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

It's my first day of a new school year tomorrow. Well, I don't know why but I'm not as excited as the previous year. Well, maybe because I know I have a lot of things to do this year as a 3rd year college student. And I'll miss being here in the house doing nothing but chatting, blogging, reading and everything nice.


Gosh, I'll miss being bum. LOL. I'm not mentally, physically, emotionally prepared to go to school. I think I still need some lllloooonnnngggg rest. Hehe. Well, wish me luck on my first day of school. I hope it will turn out fine.

It seems as if I'm a pre-school student. Hahaha.

New CellPhone: Nokia 6233

0

Written on Saturday, May 31, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

At last, I got a new phone - Nokia 6233. Well, it's not really mine. My sister bought this phone but she's still using her old phone. She's generous enough to lend it to me because she knows I'll be needing one in couple of days because school is starting.

Nokia 6233 is a 3G phone with new Series 40 with animated 3d menu and graphics.

What I like about 6233? It's simple yet elegant.

~ Nokia 6233 has a music player and two twin speakers that gives a 3d surround effect. I really like listening to music. And I'm enjoying the speakers. Not only that, it also has a stereo FM radio and can handle a range of formats.

~ It's attractive with it's metallic body frame casing. It's handy. It's not that heavy for a 3g. phone.

~ It has 6 mb internal memory and 64 mb internal memory card which I can store a lot of pictures, music and games. You can still add up until 2 gb of memory.

~ It is Bluetooth, Infrared and USB supported. Web browsing is fast and battery life is long.

What I don't like about it.....

~ The camera is only 2 mega pixels and there is no flash.

~ There's no front camera.

~ The buttons are hard to press. But I don't know, maybe without a phone for a month, I'm not used to texting anymore.

Overall, I'm loving it. And it will be my baby for days to come. Hehehe.



Laptop - A Necessity

0

Written on Saturday, May 31, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

A laptop with Cellphone Capabilities - Fujitsu Esprimo Mobile Series (V, D, M and U) and Lifebook Series (E, S, P and T).
I saw this when I was browsing because I want to have a new laptop. The laptops are very versatile and I really like it's professional look. Yah, I know I still can't afford to have a laptop like this. When I do get rich tomorrow if ever I'll win the lottery (which is impossible because I don't get to bet), I'll get this one of a kind laptop.

Well, my laptop is WAY TOO OLD.

Really I'm not kidding. That's why I'm planning to convince my parents to buy me a new one. My laptop is an IBM ThinkPad T23 Series. I got this from an auction. I bought this for only 2,000 php ($46). I think many people thought that the battery was not working properly. However, when I got a hand in the laptop, it was working properly. However, in 6 months that I have been using it, the battery suddenly did not work. So whenever I have to use it, I have to plug it in. So my laptop was not that portable. I need an outlet to make it work. I bought a new battery for 1,500 php($38) in which the price is close to the whole laptop itself.

Up to now, it's still working but not really in a good condition. It has a crack in both sides of the LCD. My younger brother fell it on the floor, the only damage was the LCD. Actually the two cracks was like a design. Hehehe. And sometimes, it's having fan errors.

As a computer science student, I really need one. I have to bring it to school when I have presentations and whenever I have to cram for a project. It's still working but I think I have to buy a new one because I know one of these days, it will suddenly stop working because of it's oldness.

I don't have enough money to buy a new laptop so I'll convince my parents to buy me a new one. I hope that they'll agree. But I know we're in a tight budget, so I think if ever they'll agree to buy me a new one, it will not be too soon. I can still wait. =D


My Lappy Tappy..
We've been through a lot
.

Organizations Vs. Studies

0

Written on Saturday, May 31, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Junior Philippine Computer Society (JPCS) is the premier national student I.T. organization in the Philippines. I am lucky to be a part of the JPCS - APC Chapter as an officer. I was the Directress for Information Security for the last school year. I was suppose to be the Treasurer for this school year. But as early as the last semester, I quit.

Being an officer, I got a lot of privilege. I got to print at the resource center for free, I got to have plus points in one of my subject and I got a lot of free snack during meetings. LOL. I also encountered a lot of people along the way. But it has also its downside. It's hard for me to focus on my studies. Well, last semester, we are starting with our mini-thesis - a waste exchange system for the Philippine Business for the Environment. And it's so hard to work on it because we are only three in the group and the two of us, Alphard and I are officers in the said organization. And I'm the project manager of the team so I was suppose to supervise them but I got into a lot of activities in the organization that I need to cram for our project.

Because our mini-thesis is continuous until next year, I decided to quit even though I know I will miss being an officer and the privileges that comes with it.

Just last week, a friend of mine, Ely, offered me to be an officer of Junior Information Systems Security Association. The organization is catered to computer science students who wants to know more about networking. Ely, as a president of the organization, offered me to become the vice external affairs of the organization. Yet, I declined.

The same reason. I just don't want to be stressed out with the organization and my studies. I just want to choose one.

But I'm somehow sad with my decision because I let to slip two opportunities that came knocking over me. Only few chosen people are given that opportunity but I was not able to grab it. I felt I missed the chance given to me. But who knows, maybe, just maybe, something great will happen.

Wow! I'm Popular?!?

0

Written on Friday, May 30, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

This is my last day as a student assistant. If ever you have enrolled to Asia Pacific College, you'll never miss me. We have talked already. I'm the girl who validates your I.D., signs your registration forms and gives you a lot of pamphlets.

This is such a wonderful experience talking to people in all walks of life and in different moods. Hehe. Most of the people are nice. I think people are nice when you are nice too and whenever I smile to them. Some are snobbish, in a hurry or just plain angry at life. And I' just smile away to them. I don't get anything by being upset except wrinkles. LOL.

For 5 days, I have talked talked to 200+ people a day. Almost 1000+ people in all. And take note: they wait for my signature. I felt I was a superstar and a fan of mine is waiting for my signature. Hehe. Now, I know how it felt to be a star and popular. Haha.

I'm a very shy girl and you'll never get to notice me. And now everybody knows my face. Some of the students even get to ask my name. Some even wants to know my friendster account. Haha. Because of that I was actually thinking of promoting my blog, but I was so shy to do such a thing.

I know they'll forget me about a week after this. But at least it's nice to be popular for 5 consecutive days. =D

People inquiring at the registrar's office.

My log book.. Lot of people already have signed

My supervisor's screensaver, Miss Cecille
that's why many people call her "Betty Boop"

Egg Pie, that's our free snack

Me and my co-student assistant, April.
She's also my blockmate.

My Blog's Monthsary

0

Written on Wednesday, May 28, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student


I am celebrating today May 28, 2008 my blog's one month. I just want to thank you all for visiting my blog. I don't know how to repay you. If this blog will be more successful, I would like to give out contests or anything to reward my readers. Maybe in the near future. But for now, I will just announce that starting from mid of June, I'll be promoting an online friend of the month. And i'll give her a blog review that he/she deserves. If you are interested to promote your blog, and please be my online friend. =D

I choose Open Source

0

Written on Wednesday, May 28, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Today was my enrollment day. And for months now, I don't know what to chose as an elective course, Web Technology or Open Source. I only have to chose one. (See my blog post - Elective: Web Technology or Open Source).

Now, I chose Open Source. However I'm still not decided, gosh it's really hard to pick. And a factor that is shaking my decision is the schedule of classes. Picking Open Source means that I will have 3 hours vacant. If Open Source is not in my schedule, I can go home early as 12 noon. But if I will take it up, I have to wait until 3 pm and the class will last until 5 pm. Anyway, this schedule will only be for tuesday and thursday.

Schedule of Web Technology are MWF (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) . If I'll take Web Technology, I will be having a class from 8 - 4:30 in which Web Technology is 3:30-4:30. I'll be going home early during in Tuesday and Thursday which is quite nice.

I still have time to change my elective, in the load revision period. But the schedule is not a good reason for me to change my decision. Well, I'm just considering it because it can also affect my performance.

I hope I would pick the right choice.

No Tuition Fee Increase & My Scholarship

0

Written on Monday, May 26, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

I'm glad that Commission on Higher Education or also known as CHED stopped any increase in tuition for state universities and colleges (SUCs) here in the Philippines. They are also convincing private higher institutions to reconsider their plans to hike tuition and other fees for this school year.

When prices are increasing, this is a nice news to here. Even though my school(Asia Pacific College) is a private institution, still they did not have a tuition fee increase. I'm a scholar myself because I cannot afford to pay the 45,000 pesos ($1047) regular tuition fee per semester in my school. I have a 70% discount in which I only pay 14,000-15,00o pesos ($313) per semester. It really helps me to continue pursuing my course.

Because of this scholarship, I have to render student service to the institution. So now, that's enrollment is starting, I'm a student assistant to students that are enrolling. I validate their ID's and registration forms, give them flyers and collegiate calenders and make them fill up a survey.

Well, it's really nice experience to talk to 300 people in just a day. And yet, it's also a tiring job. I have to be there as early as 7:00 am and I can go home at 5:00. I have to say "Thank you" a couple of times and I have to look as if I am not tired. At first, I was energetic but as the day goes by, my energy is wearing off. I have to do this for 5 straight days. Whew, Still, i'm happy doing my job.

I also have to maintain a grade so I need to study hard too. I don't want to lose my scholarship because if ever it will happen, I have to stop going to school, get a job and transfer to another school. I don't want that to happen.

I'm just glad that today, I'm not that a burden to my parents.


Collegiate calendar and flyers that I'm giving away

Got many to give away..


Other student assistants like me..


The long line awaits me...

My supervisors - Registrar's employees.

Being a student assistant will keep me busy this week, I hope I still have time for blogging.

Dinosaur King Tournament @ Powerstation RockWell

0

Written on Monday, May 26, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Dinosaur King is a card collecting video game from Sega. The game involves card collection in which cards can be categorized as a dinosaur card, a move card and a character card. At first, the arcade machine will dispense a card. After giving you your card, you will choose to battle it out with a computer or a friend. After choosing, a player has to swipe in the arcade machine a dinosaur card and move cards. If you don't have any you can use the default dinosaur and moves along it. You can also use a character card instead of a dinosaur card. However, character cards are rare and is only given to Dinosaur King tournament winners.

The game concept is rock-paper-scissors, in Filipino "Bato-bato-Pick". A player has to choose from the three buttons, rock in color red, scissors in yellow and paper in blue. The scissors beats the paper, the paper beats the rock and the rock beats the scissors. The one who wins the rock-paper-scissors gets the chance to hit the losing dinosaur. Every dinosaur has its strength value depending on the type of dinosaur. If one hits another dinosaur, he loses some strength. You win if you get to hit him many times that he gets knockout in which he has no strength value at all.

Almost every month usually during the weekends, the Powerstation in Powerplant Mall, Rockwell, Makati schedules tournaments to kids 15 and below. They battle it out with friends and this brings good camaraderie to young children. The final four winners are given 200 gift certificates from Powerstation, the 2nd gets 1,500 gift certificate and the champion gets to go home 2,000 gift certificates, a collector's item dinosaur and a character card courtesy of Powerstation.

Yesterday, my brother and I went there because my brother wants to join the tournament and I accompanied him. Luckily, he won and was the champion. I am so proud of him. If you think it's just a child's game, my brother also used some strategy and techniques to win. And of course some luck.


The emcee, Marvin, giving his own comments while the tournament is going on



My brother is the guy in blue. He's starting to swipe his card.



Got into the final four



With other final four finalist.


As a champion, he got this cute dinosaur collectible.

If you want to know the tournament schedules, you can visit Powerstation at the 3rd floor of Powerplant Mall and it's also posted in all Powerstation branches.

Coping with Stress

4

Written on Sunday, May 25, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

I got this from a friend in multiply and I really like the article because I am always stressed out with home work and projects from the last term and it can really help me to cope up and handle stress. School will be starting again and I'm seeing that it would be more stressful than the last term because I am in my 3rd year and in my major year. Everyone can benefit from reading this article

COPING WITH STRESS
Author Unknown
May 15 2008

A lecturer, when explaining stress management to an audience, raised a
glass of water and asked, "How heavy is this glass of water?"
Answers called out ranged from 20g to 500g.

The lecturer replied, "The absolute weight doesn't matter. It depends on how long you try to hold it.
If I hold it for a minute, that's not a problem.
If I hold it for an hour, I'll have an ache in my right arm.
If I hold it for a day, you'll have to call an ambulance.

In each case, it's the same weight, but the longer I hold it, the heavier it becomes."

He continued, "And that's the way it is with stress management. If we
carry our burdens all the time, sooner or later, as the burden becomes
increasingly heavy, we won't be able to carry on."

"As with the glass of water, you have to put it down for a while and restbefore holding it again. When we're refreshed, we can carry on with the burden."

"So, before you return home tonight, put the burden of work down.
Don't carry it home. You can pick it up tomorrow. Whatever burdens
you're carrying now, let them down for a moment if you can."

So, my friend, Put down anything that may be a burden to you right now. Don't pick it up again until after you've rested a while.

Here are some great ways of dealing with the burdens of life:
* Accept that some days you're the pigeon, and some days you're the
statue.
* Always keep your words soft and sweet, just in case you have to eat
them.
* Always read stuff that will make you look good if you die in the
middle of it.
* Drive carefully. It's not only cars that can be recalled by their maker.
* If you can't be kind, at least have the decency to be vague.
* If you lend someone $20 and never see that person again, it was
probably worth it.
* It may be that your sole purpose in life is simply be kind to others.
* Never put both feet in your mouth at the same time, because then you
won't have a leg to stand on.
* Nobody cares if you can't dance well. Just get up and dance.
* Since it's the early worm that gets eaten by the bird, sleep late.
* The second mouse gets the cheese.
* When everything's coming your way, you're in the wrong lane.
* Birthdays are good for you. The more you have, the longer you live.
* You may be only one person in the world, but you may also be the
world to one person.
* Some mistakes are too much fun to only make once .
* We could learn a lot from crayons... Some are sharp, some are pretty
and some are dull. Some have weird names, and all are different colors, but they all have to live in the same box.
*A truly happy person is one who can enjoy the scenery on a detour.

Cramming For An Exam: Do It The Right Way

2

Written on Saturday, May 24, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

You have a long test, 100 items, in your Psychology class at 1 pm. It covers from Chapter 1-5. It's already 11:00 am and you have not even read a single page in one of the chapters. Just 2 hours away from the big exam. Is this a familiar scenario to you?

I'm a procrastinator. I always do things at the last minute. I do not study ahead. For me, it doesn't work if I study ahead because I am such a forgetful being. But even though I always cram, I can still manage to work it out to top my exams. I'm not here to boast out to you how I manage to work it out to top my exams but I want to tell you that if you ever have to cram, you have to do it the right way in order to be successful at it. These following tips helped me to cram the right way.

1. Focus.
When I know I have to study just 2 hours for an exam, I keep away from distractions. No T.V., No Music, No Yahoo Messenger. I locked myself in my room and just focus to the material i'm studying.

2. Don't Panic.
Usually when you are force to study many things for a certain amount of time, your brain starts to switch to panic mode. Just be calm and be positive. Tell yourself that you can manage it and you can do learn it in a limited amount of time.

3. Budget your time.
Don't waste your time in one chapter or a part of a material you're trying to study. Divide your time in each part. What I usually do is allot a time span. When I have to review for 3 chapters and I only have one hour, I usually allot 15 minutes for each chapter and when I do not finish the chapter in the alloted time of 15 minutes, I skip to another chapter and when I'm finish with the 3 chapters, I go back to topics which I have missed.

4. Scan for important key and concepts.
Well, you're cramming right? So don't study as if you have enough time. Learn how to pick out important bits of information and remember it the first time because you may not have the second time.

5. Look for quiz pattern in the first quiz
The first test of your professor says a lot about how he/she makes the exams. You'll learn a lot about where does he/she gets the questions. It maybe in lectures, textbooks or in things that he/she writes on the board.

6. Use mnemonics.
This really works for me even if I am not cramming. If there's a list I gather all the first letter of the list and make a word out of it. There's a lot of way and you can make your own style to remember things.

7. Remember it the first time
There's a big chance that you'll forget it if you just repeat it to yourself. I didn't remember the information by repeating the sentence "Nikolaus Wirth invented Pascal" over and over. I usually quiz myself. I'll ask my self who invented Pascal and i'll think and answer Nikolaus Wirth.

WARNING! Cramming is really not good. It gives you stress. And this tips, don't work all the time. So if you want to really excel, then I advice you to study frequently and budget your time effectively. And another tip, don't cheat.

Actually, I want to quit this habit of cramming and procrastinating. I don't know I can't help it. There's so many things to do but so little time. I hope by the start of a new school year, I can somehow minimize, if ever i cannot totally stop, cramming.

<--- It's me surprised by my school mate and I was cramming and studying at the library...

I signed up for PayPerPost

5

Written on Friday, May 23, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

When I was blog hopping, I saw a blog entry saying that she has just signed up for PayPerPost. She said that it's a great way to blog and to be paid for what you are blogging. I got curious so I researched PayPerPost in the internet.

PayPerPost (PPP) is a website which helps content creators such as bloggers, videographers, podcasters and photographers find advertisers willing to sponsor specific content. (Wiki Definition)

I also saw that many people have joined themselves and it was credible so I signed up my blog.

What I like about PayPerPost is that they pay you while blogging and not just that you can also meet other PayPerPost friends as well . It's a great way to reward yourself.

It's nice to have some extra bucks because I really need it for my tuition fee. As a college student, I need to pay for the internet bills and my computer books as well which really cost a lot. And if ever I'll get rich by doing this, (which is I don't know if this will happen) I'll give scholarships to students that are in need and deserve to have one. This is such an ambitious goal. LOL.

If you have a blog and wants to earn as well, then I suggest that you sign up as well.
Get paid to blog


A Month W/out A Cellphone! Can you handle that?

9

Written on Thursday, May 22, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Mobile phones are everywhere. They are necessity for many people. Imagine a life, without a cellphone for just a month. What about for a year? In this world evolving in the new era of technology, I think a few people can handle that.

For a month now, I don't have any mobile phone. I used to have one. It's because my Motorola v3i is not working properly. I really don't know what's wrong. When I charge it, i have to charge it for more than 6 hours and I can only use it for an hour. Weird huh? Maybe it's because of the battery or the charger whatever it is I hope I would find someone that can repair this phone.

Not having a cellphone for one month, has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages

1. Nobody is bothering you
You will not get bothered by anyone. I have many friends bugging me when I had my cellphone. Now, I have a valid excuse for not replying. And i had a worry free life. :D
2. You do not have to check anything.

You don't have to look your phone hour after hour just to see if there's a missed call or someone texted you. And me as being forgetful, I don't have to mind where I put my phone. And I really enjoyed this advantage, for I felt free from the responsibility of having a phone.

Disadvantages

1. I am not updated about my friends
I don't know if they moved to another country, another school or another planet. Anyway, there's friendster for that.

2. I can't keep in touch with my loved ones.
My father is in Cebu and I'm here in Makati. I can't text him. =C Just to keep in touch, I just email him and we sometimes talk in YM.

I'm loving the freedom from a cellphone. But definitely I would repair my phone or buy a new one because even though I can stand without a phone, sometimes we need our phones for emergencies and unexpected events. So I say I cannot really handle a year without a phone.

How about you? Can you handle that?


Please bear with the pictures. Had it in my bedroom that's why it was dark.

New PC Express @ Market! Market!

7

Written on Wednesday, May 21, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

PC Express is a shop where you can buy the broadest range of PC components, desktops and quality peripherals. I went to Market! Market! yesterday and I was so surprised that a new PC Express has opened up there. It opened last Tuesday, May 13. I am so delighted that a new PC Express has opened near my house because I was planning to go in their Buendia branch.

My boyfriend and I was supposed to buy a keyboard, a power supply and a mouse. However, there is no more keyboard and power supply that we wanted. The store is new so they don't still have a large supply in their store. The only thing that we bought is an A4Tech Optical PS2 Mouse.
I really like the people there because they are very knowledgeable about computer hardware and they are really friendly. If ever you get there, you can try out their PC arcade like game which is free and promotes their steering wheel.

They'll be adding more stuffs in June. If you are near Market! Market! try to visit them there. It's in 4th floor above Anson's.

Cd-R King: Price Vs. Quality Vs. Service

8

Written on Tuesday, May 20, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Cd-r King is one of the leading one-stop shop for your technological needs here in the Philippines. You can see their branch everywhere. And as a student, I always buy at Cd-r King because they have way cheaper price than any other stores.

Why is Cd-r King price way cheaper? They say it's because they buy right from the factory and they buy bulk orders.

I say it's because its an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) from China. And because it's way cheaper, you are not guaranteed of its quality.

Actually I've buy a lot of items from Cd-r king and many of them are still working. Just a few of them are not. I got a lot of blank cds from Cd-r King and a mouse not working . But my router, notebook cooler and my web cam are still perfectly in shape. I still use my Kingston USB from them. You just need a lot of luck to have good items from Cd-r King that last.

And one thing that I really hate about Cd-r king is the long line of people just to buy from them. They can prevent this from having an automated system. I just hate it when they still have to put the receipt in a piece of paper.

Nevertheless, I have no choice. Since I'm saving up my money, I still have to buy in Cd-r King stores. Just wish me luck that I'll get a good product.

Is ComSci right for you? 7 Questions to Ask Yourself

7

Written on Monday, May 19, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

I have a lot of classmates who doesn't want to be in their course (computer science). It's whether they want to be a fashion designer, photographer and other careers that are not related to computer science. At the middle of the semester, they shift to other course. Others are struggling because their parents want computer science for them. Realizing this, I want to save others from picking the wrong career for them. If you want to be a computer science major, then you need to consider these 7 questions.

1. Are you interested in technology?
If you do not like technology and you do not like to be updated, then think twice in taking up any computer science related course.

2. Are you the person who likes to read?
Being a computer science student, you have to read a lot of books and technical stuffs. You also have to read articles about the latest news and buzz about the I.T. industry.

3. Are you fond of studying?
I.T. is constantly changing. What hot and cool today, may not be tomorrow. You have to be updated in the latest trend. You have to study new technology that you might not be able to study in school.

4. Is it ok for you to work in groups?
Usually projects are in groups because you cannot make a system with your expertise alone. You need other opinions as well. You have to learn to be able to communicate well with your group and be able to work it out. Others prefer to do things alone and don't communicate well, that's why many group projects fail. You have to develop team spirit.

5. Do you have a good foundation in Mathematics?
Prepare yourself in the world of Math. You'll be dealing with a lot of mathematical applications.

6. Do you have good logical skills?
You have to always think and be able to solve problems in this kind of course. You have to reason out and be able to give proper solution.

7. Do you communicate well?
The difference between a tolerable programmer and a great programmer is not how many programming languages they know, and it's not whether they prefer Python or Java. It's whether they can communicate their ideas. If you cannot communicate your ideas well, you will not get the chance to promote your concepts and works.

These seven questions will help you in deciding if computer science really works for you.

The World Cyber Games Elimination Has Started

1

Written on Saturday, May 17, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

I went yesterday in Megamall and found out that World Cyber Games Metro Manila Elimination has started here in the Philippines.

World Cyber Games or also known as WCG is one of the biggest video game competition in the whole world. The best gamers around the world are gathered to compete and to share the excitement and fun of the game tournaments.

The Metro Manila preliminaries will continue all saturdays and sundays of May 17 - June 1, 2008. To join click HERE.

The list of games that they are battling out are:

• Half-Life®: Counter-Strike™ 1.6
• WarCraft® III: The Frozen Throne™
• Command & Conquer 3: Kane’s Wrath™
• FIFA Soccer 08
• Guitar Hero® III: Legends of Rock

Everyone can join. I'm calling all the dota addicts there, you can try. By just registering, you can also win an Xbox. There's no harm in trying.

If ever you are lucky enough to win, as a finalist you can win 1,000 php. As a first prize winner, you can win 30,000 php and represent our country to Cologne, Germany on November 5-9, 2008 in the World Finals.

Hurry now and register and make our country proud.

References:
http://ph.worldcybergames.com/prizes.htm
http://www.worldcybergames.com/6th/main.asp

Father of Java gave Pinoy Students an Award

1

Written on Saturday, May 17, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

James Gosling, the father of Java, gave a group of UP computer science students an award for having the most innovative use of Java technology in the category of Medical Solutions last week at San Francisco in the 2008 Duke's Choice Award.

The award-winning project was Expert System for Poisoining also called the Project ESP. The project is a tool to diagnose and to help treat poisoning. The user enters signs and symptoms observed in a patient, and the system outputs a list of matching poisoning types and possible treatments for the medical attendant to use.

The 2008 Dukes Choice Award is an annual event that recognizes the best and the most innovative use of Java Technology. The Java technology leadership team -- including James Gosling, known as the father of Java technology -- selects the winners based on the creativity of the Java technology-based applications and services.

References:
http://java.sun.com/javaone/sf/2008/articles/2008dukeschoiceawards.jsp
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/infotech/view/20080512-136106/UP-students-get-award-from-father-of-Java

Computer Science Funny Lines

3

Written on Thursday, May 15, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Warning: If you are not a computer science or don't know anything about programming, you will not understand why these lines are funny.

"You are a field in my class. You will always be protected."

"Are you an exception? Let me catch you."

"You are my increment operator. You make my value increase."

"I think you're my compiler. My life wouldn't start without you."

"You are my initializer: without you, my life would point to nothing (null)."

"I am a BufferedReader. You input meaning into my life."

"You are my semicolon; always present in everything I do."

"You are the JDK (Java Development Kit) in my life. I won't compile without you."

"If I were a method, you must be my parameter, because I will always need you."

"Can you be my private variable? I want to be the only one with access to you."

"We are an aggregation of classes: one cannot exist without the other."

"public class YourWorld extends MyWorld"

"My love is a for loop without the increment operator-- infinitive, non-terminating, and difficult to stop once it starts running."

"Let me be the 'throws Exception' to your 'public static void main (String[] args)'. I will accept whatever you give me."

"[me != me]. [me += you]."

"You are my superclass: you define what I can do."

"You are the IDE of my life: I find it easier because of you."

"My main method is 'public love iLoveYou().' "

"I am the field attribute in your class: I can't exist unless you do."

"My love for you is a constant variable: unupdatable and unchangeable."

"Are you an applet? You make me feel all GUI (gooey) inside."

"You are my loop condition. I keep coming back to you."

"You are my methods. I am nothing without you."

"Are you my driver? Because you make my life worthwhile."

"You are my API. I want to know everything about you."

"Can you be my ActionListener? That way you notice everything that I do."

"I am a boolean method whose love will always return true."

Elective: Web Technology or Open Source

0

Written on Wednesday, May 14, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Two weeks from now, I have to enroll my subjects and I am still not decided in what elective I'll be taking. I have to choose from the three: web technology, open source and computer security. Computer security is out of the question because I really don't like it and it's primarily for computer networking majors.

What elective subject should I get, Web Technology or Open Source?

I've been thinking this for months now. I know the answer will depend on my interest. However I really like them both.

I like Web Technology because I will be learning Photoshop, Flash, Dreamweaver and other stuffs. However, I know I am not that good in design because I'll admit I'm not that creative. If I'll take this up, it will bring out the creative juices in me but I'm afraid that I will fail the subject because of the lack of creativity.

I also like Open Source. I have a great interest in programming and configuring the kernel will be a challenge for me. It will enhance my programming skills. I know if I take Open Source, it will be very hard for me than taking up Web Technology.

Waaahhh. I'm so torn.

Back-To-School Guide

1

Written on Wednesday, May 14, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Summer getaways are almost over and two weeks from now, students like me will have to face another school year ahead of us. I know every student is still not prepared to go to school and we’re still enjoying the summer vacation. But still we cannot change the fact that we will be coming to school soon, so I prepared a BACK-TO-SCHOOL guide.

1. Check your old stuffs.

If you can still use your old clothes for this coming school year or your old school stuffs like ballpens and notebooks, please do so. Prices of commodities are increasing so we better save up some money. You will not only save money, you can also help mother earth. Also checking your old stuff will help you see what you still need to do for shopping.

2. Talk to an upperclassman.

Talking to an upperclassman will help you with the insights of the subjects that you will be taking and the professors that likely to handle that subject. Upperclassman can also help you handle the subjects and survive throughout the semester. They can also lend you with some stuffs like papers and textbooks that you need for some subjects. Lucky for you, if they give you a free tutorial on your subjects.

3. Do your complete back-to-school shopping after school starts

Some may agree or disagree with me. But I find less crowded in the mall after school starts. And usually, professors give their need to buy list in the first day of school, so it’s better you make up first a complete list of really need to buy stuffs.

4. Be mentally and physically prepare

Because it’s summer and there’s no need to wake up early, we tend to sleep late and oversleep. Try sleeping early and waking up early a week before the school starts so that you can adjust easily. Try also to get enough exercise, so that you can be physically fit when the school starts.

A good way also to be mentally prepared is to read in advance what subjects you will be taking up. You’ll get a lot of insights and you will be prepared for your first class.

5. Get on the right foot

Getting off on the right foot means managing your time effectively and establishing good study habits. At the start of school, try to maintain a calendar of homeworks, assignments, test descriptions and test dates. (It really helps). If you get things right at the start, you will get the flow and continue to set a good study habit.

Funny Error Messages

0

Written on Thursday, May 08, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

If you want a good laugh, click here.

Some are funny.

My favorite:

Windows found a bug in your software. It's a fucking butterfly.

hehehe.

Windows XP Error Messages

0

Written on Thursday, May 08, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

When you get to program and nothing is working, you tend to hallucinate that the error message is saying the following:

• Smash forehead on keyboard to continue. --> i really do this when nothing seems to work.

• Press any key to continue or any other key to quit.

• BREAKFAST.SYS halted... Cereal port not responding.

• Close your eyes and press escape three times.

• File not found. Should I fake it? (Y/N)

• Runtime Error 6D at 417A:32CF: Incompetent User.

• Enter any 11-digit prime number to continue.

• Bad command or file name! Go stand in the corner.

• Windows message: "Error saving file! Format drive now? (Y/Y)"

• Windows VirusScan 1.0 - "Windows found: Remove it? (Y/N)"

Waste Exchange System

0

Written on Wednesday, May 07, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

My group mates and I in a subject (Introduction to System, Analysis and Design) have come up with a waste exchange system. This is just a layout screenshots. It's really not working. We will come up with a working prototype in June. We will be using symfony - a framework of PHP. The waste exchange system is for the Philippine Business for the Environment. This system will be helpful to them so I hope my groupmates and I got to implement this.











Optimize your Internet Connection?

0

Written on Tuesday, May 06, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

I friend of mine suggest this tool to increase your internet connection. It works for me. I suggest that you also try this. However, if you a fast internet connection, you will not notice the difference. Only slow running internet connection can appreciate this.

Download SG TCP Optimizer here


Tell me if it works for you too. =D

Rules of Precedence (Machine Problem)

0

Written on Tuesday, May 06, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Assume the following rules of precedence for expressions:
Highest is addition (+)
then subtraction (-)
then multiplication (*)
then division (/)

Evaluate inputs such as:
(a) 1+4*3-2/2 Output: 5*3-2/2 = 5*1/2 = 5/2 = 2.5
(b) 5-2/2+1*2 Output: 5-2/3*2 = 3/3*2 = 3/6 = 0.5
(c) 3-2+4-2+5 Output: 3-6-7 = -3 - 7 = -10




Statement Level Control Structures, Subprograms

0

Written on Monday, May 05, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Chapter 7. Statement-Level Control Structures

1. What is pretest loop statement? a posttest loop statement?

Pretest loop statements are set of statements to be executed repeatedly in which the test for loop completion occurs before the loop body is executed

Posttest loop statements are set of statements to be executed repeatedly in which the test for loop completion occurs after the loop body is executed

2. What is the main reason user-located loop control statements were invented?

The main reason why user-located loop control statements were invented because in some situations, it is convenient for a programmer to choose a location for loop control other than top or bottom of the loop. As a result, some languages provide this capability, the user-located loop control mechanism.

3. What is a user-defined iteration control?

A user-defined iteration control is the one that issues a special call to the iterator, in which the iterator is called at the beginning of each iteration, and each time it is called, the iterator returns an element from a particular data structure in some specific order.

4. What are the design issues for

(a) selection structures

  1. What is the form and type of the expression that controls the section?
  2. Can a single statement, a sequence of statements, or a compound statement be selected?
  3. How should the meaning of nested selectors be specified?

(b) multiple selection statements

  1. What is the form and type of expression that controls the selection?
  2. May single statements, sequences of sentences, or compound sentences be selected?
  3. Is the entire construct encapsulated in a syntactic structure?
  4. Is execution flow through the structure restricted to include just a single selectable segment?
  5. How should unrepresented selector expression values be handled, if at all?

(c) counter-controlled loop statements

  1. What are the type and scope of the loop variable?
  2. What value does the loop variable have at the loop termination?
  3. Should it be legal for the loop variables or loop parameters to be changed in the loop, and if so, does the change affect the loop control?
  4. Should the loop parameters be evaluated only once, or once for every iteration?

(d) logically-controlled loop statements

  1. Should the control be pretest or posttest?
  2. Should the logically controlled loop be a special form of counting loop or a separate statement?

Sebesta. Chapter 8. Subprograms

5. Define

(a) static-chain

Static chain is a chain of static links that connect certain activation record instances in the stack.

(b) static depth

Static depth is an integer associated with a static scope that indicates how deeply it is nested in the outermost scope.

Ex: A main program has a static_depth of 0. If procedure A is the only procedure defined in a main program, its static_depth is 1. If procedure A contains the definition of a nested procedure B, the B's static_depth is 2.

(c) nesting depth

Nesting depth is interchangeable with chain offset

(d) chain offset

Chain_offset is the length of the static chain needed to reach the correct activation record instance for a nonlocal reference to a variable X is exactly the difference between the static_depth of the procedure containing the reference to X and the static_depth of the procedure containing the declaration for X. This difference is the chain_offset.

Ex: If the static_depths of A, B, and C are 0, 1, and 2, respectively. If procedure C references a variable declared in A, the chain_offset of the reference would be 2 (static depth of C minus the static_depth of A). If procedure C references a variable declared in B, the chain_offset of the reference would be 1. References to locals can be handled using the same mechanism, with a chain_offset of zero.

6. Explain the two methods of implementing blocks.

Blocks are treated as parameterless subprograms that are always called from the same place in the program. If blocks are implemented this way using the display method, one disadvantage is that as maximum nesting grows, required display size grows along with it. A display must be limited in size if it is to be stored in registers. So requiring display cells for blocks can cause the display to be stored in memory rather than in registers, causing considerable slowing of references to nonlocal variables.

Blocks can also be implemented in a different and somewhat simpler way. The maximum amount of storage required for block variables at any time during the execution of a program can be statically determined, because blocks are entered and exited in strictly textual order. This amount of space can be allocated after the local variables in the activation record. Offsets for all block variables can be statically computed, so block variables can be addressed exactly as if they were local variables.

7. Compare the deep access method and shallow access method of implementing dynamic scoping.

When a program that uses dynamic scoping refers to a nonlocal variable, the reference can be resolved by searching through the declarations in the other subprograms that are currently active, beginning with the one most recently activated. This concept is similar to that of accessing nonlocal variables in a static-scoped language, except that the dynamic-rather than static-chain is followed. The dynamic chain links together all subprogram activation record instances in the reverse of the order in which they were activated. Therefore, the dynamic chain is exactly what is needed to reference nonlocal variable in a dynamic-scoped language. This method is called deep access because access may require searches deep in the stack.

In the shallow access method, variables declared in subprograms are not stored in the activation records of those subprograms. Because with dynamic scoping there is at most one visible version of a variable of any specific name at a given time, a very different approach can be taken. One variation of shallow access is to have a separate stack for each variable name in a complete program. Every time a new variable with a particular name is created by a declaration at the beginning of a subprogram activation, the variable is given a cell on the stack for its name. Every reference to the name is to the variable on top of the stack associated with that name, because the top one is the most recently created.

The choice between shallow and deep access and nonlocal variables depends on the relative frequencies of subprogram calls and nonlocal references. The deep access method provides fast subprogram linkages, but references to nonlocals, especially references to distant nonlocals (in terms of the call chain), are costly. The shallow access method provides much faster references to nonlocals, especially distant nonlocals, but is more costly in terms of subprogram linkage.

Data Types, Expression and Assignment Statement

0

Written on Monday, May 05, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Chapter 5

Part 1. Define the following:

1. Descriptor

2. Ordinal, enumeration, subrange types

3. Static array, fixed static-dynamic array, stack-dynamic array, dynamic array

4. Aggregate constant

5. Row major order, column major order

6. Fully qualified, elliptical references to fields in records

7. Union, free union, discriminated union

Part 2. Answer briefly.

1. Why does a decimal value waste memory space?

2. What are the design issues for character string types?

3. What are the design issues for pointer types?

Chapter 6

Part 1. Define the following:

1. Operator precedence, operator associativity

2. Functional side effect

3. Coercion

4. Conditional expression

5. Overloaded operator

6. Narrowing & widening conversions

Part 2. Answer briefly.

1. What is the purpose of a compound assignment operator?

2. Describe a situation in which the add operator in a programming language would not be associative.

Answers

Chapter 5
Part 1.
Define the following:
1.Descriptor

A descriptor is the collection of the attributes of a variable. In an implementation a descriptor is a collection of memory cells that store variable attributes. If attributes are all static, descriptors are required only at compile time. They are built by the compiler usually as a part of the symbol table, and are used during compilation. For dynamic attributes, however, part or all of the descriptor must be maintained during execution. In this case the descriptor is used by the run-time system.

2. Ordinal, enumeration, subrange types

An ordinal type is one in which the range of possible values can be easily associated with the set of positive integers. In many languages, users can define two kinds of ordinal types: enumeration and subrange.

An enumeration type is one in which all of the possible values, which become symbolic constants, are enumerated in the definition. Enumeration types have advantages to readability and reliability.
Example: In Ada, type DAYS is (Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun);

A subrange type is a contiguous subsequence of an ordinal type. Subrange types were introduced by Pascal and are also included in Ada. There are no design issues that are specific to subrange types.
Example: 12 ... 14 is a sub range of integer type.

3. Static array, fixed static-dynamic array, stack-dynamic array, dynamic array

A static array is one in which the subscript ranges are statically bound and storage allocation is static (done before run time). The advantage of static array is efficiency: No dynamic allocation or deallocation is required.

A fixed stack-dynamic array is one in which the subscript ranges are statically bound, but the allocation is done at declaration elaboration time during execution. The advantage of fixed stack-dynamic arrays over static arrays is space efficiency. A large array in one procedure can use the same space as a large array in different procedure, as long as both procedures are not active at the same time.

A stack-dynamic array is one in which the subscript ranges are dynamically bound and the storage allocation is dynamic (done during run time). Once the subscript ranges are bound and the storage is allocated, however, they remain fixed during the lifetime of the variable. The advantage of stack-dynamic array over static and fixed-stack dynamic array is flexibility. The size of an array may need not to be known until the array is bound to be used.

A dynamic array is one in which the binding of subscript ranges and allocation is dynamic and can change any number of times during the array’s lifetime. The advantage here is flexibility: Arrays can grow and shrink during program execution as the need for space changes.

4. Aggregate constant

Aggregate constant are initializing values which are assigned to the array element locations in the order in which they appear or by directly assigning them to an index operator using direct assignment (=> operator). They are usually delimited by parentheses.

5. Row major order, column major order

Row major order is one way of mapping multidimensional array to one dimensional array in which the elements of the array that have as their first subscript the lower bound value of that subscript are stored first, followed by the elements of the second value of the first subscript, and so forth.

Column major order is one way of mapping multidimensional array to one dimensional array in which the elements of the array that have as their last subscript the lower bound value of that subscript are stored first, followed by the elements of the second value of the last subscript, and so forth.

6. Fully qualified, elliptical references to fields in records

A fully qualified reference to a record field is one in which all intermediate record names, from the largest enclosing record to the specific field, are named in the reference.

An elliptical reference to a record field is one in which the field is named, but any or all of the enclosing record names can be omitted, as long as the resulting reference is unambiguous in the referencing environment.

7. Union, free union, discriminated union

A union is a type whose variables are allowed to store different type values at different times during execution.

A free union is a union for which there is no language support for type checking. Programmers are allowed complete freedom from type checking in their use. FORTRAN, C, and C++ have this kind of union.

A discriminated union has a field that indicates the type of the data in the union. This field is called a discriminant. Pascal and Ada have discriminated unions.

Part 2. Answer briefly.

1. Why does a decimal value waste memory space?

Decimal values are designed to be accurate to a given number of decimal places. Because of this, decimal takes more memory than binary representation because decimal values must be represented by using at least 4-bits per digit in the decimal number, so for instance:
12.69 is represented as: 0001 0010 0110 1001
1 => 0001
2 => 0010
6 => 0110
9 => 1001
Therefore, to store a six-digit decimal number requires 24 bits of memory. However, it takes only 20 bits to store the same number in binary.

2. What are the design issues for character string types?

Design issues for character string types:
a. Is character string a primitive type or just a special kind of array?
b. Is the length of character string objects static or dynamic?

3. What are the design issues for pointer types?

Design issues for pointer types:
a. What is the scope and lifetime of pointer variables?
b. What is the lifetime of heap-dynamic variables?
c. Are pointers restricted to pointing at a particular type?
d. Are pointers used for dynamic storage management, indirect addressing, or both?
e. Should a language support pointer and reference types?

Chapter 6
Part 1. Define the following:
1. Operator precedence, operator associativity

Operator precedence are rules for expression evaluation that define the order in which the operators of different precedence levels are evaluated.

Operator associativity is the rules of the language which determine, when there are two adjacent occurrences of operators of the same level of precedence, which operator is evaluated first.

2. Functional side effect

Functional side effect is the side effect of a function that occurs when the function changes either one of its parameters or a global variable.
Example: A + FUN(A) (This works only if FUN changes A, then there is an effect)
3. Coercion

Coercion is the implicit type conversion that occurs when two operands of an operator are not of the same type (and that’s legal in the language) and the compiler must choose one of them to be coerced and supply the proper code for the coercion.

4. Conditional expression

Conditional expression is an assignment statement of the general form

expression_1 ? expression_2: expression_3 (if-then-else)

where expression_1 is interpreted as Boolean expression. If expression_1 is evaluated as true, the value of the whole expression is the value of expression_2; otherwise, it is the value of expression_3

5. Overloaded operator

Overloaded operator is an operator that has multiple purposes assigned to it, i.e. , in Java, + is used both for numeric additon and for string concatenation

6. Narrowing & widening conversions

A narrowing conversion converts a value to a type that cannot store even approximations of all the values of the original type, for example, converting a double to a float in Java (the range of double is much larger than that of float).

A widening conversion converts a value to a type that can include at least approximations of all the values of the original type, for example, converting an int to a float in Java. Widening conversion are nearly always safe.

Part 2. Answer briefly.
1. What is the purpose of a compound assignment operator?

A compound assignment operator is a shorthand method of specifying a commonly needed form of assignment. The form of assignment that can be abbreviated with this technique has the destination variable also appearing as the first operand on the first side, as in: a = a + b.

2. Describe a situation in which the add operator in a programming language would not be associative.

Consider the equation A + B + C where A and B are large positive numbers C is a negative number with a very large absolute value. If we were to associate the equation as follows: A + (B + C) then the equation will evaluate correctly, as B + C will not cause overflow. However, the situation is not associative as we could associate the equation as follows: (A + B) + C and have an overflow situation which would not yield the same result as the first associations evaluation.

Names, Binding, Type Checking and Scopes

0

Written on Monday, May 05, 2008 by Ennah, the comsci student

Research 4. Read throughly Chapter 4 of Sebesta's Book. Really helpful. I got a perfect score in this research.

Read Chapter 4 by Sebesta.

Part 1. Define the following terms:

a) Alias

b) Binding and binding time

c) Static binding, Dynamic binding

d) Static, static-dynamic, explicit heap-dynamic, implicit heap-dynamic

e) Coercion, type error, type checking, strong typing

f) Name type compatibility, structure type compatibility

g) Lifetime, scope, static scope, dynamic scope

h) Block

Part 2. Explain briefly.

a) What are the design issues for names?

b) In what ways are reserved words better than key words?

c) What are the advantages & disadvantages of implicit declarations?


Answers

Part 1

a) Aliases

Aliases are names that have more than one variable name that can be used to access a single memory location. Aliases are multiple identifiers reference the same address.

b) Binding and binding time

A binding is an association, such as between an attribute and an entity or between an operation and a symbol. Binding time is the time a binding takes place.

c) Static binding, Dynamic binding

Static binding is a binding that occurs first before runtime and remains unchanged throughout program execution. Dynamic binding is a binding that occurs first before runtime or can change in the course of the program execution.

d) Static,static-dynamic, explicit heap-dynamic, implicit heap-dynamic

Static variables are those that are bound to memory cells before program execution begins and remain bound to those memory cells until program execution terminates.

Stack-dynamic variables are those whose storage bindings are created when their declaration statements are elaborated, but whose types are statically bound.

Explicit heap-dynamic variables are nameless (abstract) memory cells that are allocated and deallocated by explicit run-time instructions specified by the programmer. These variables, which are allocated and deallocated to the heap, can only be referenced through pointer or reference variable.

Implicit heap-dynamic variables are bound to heap storage only when they are assigned values. All their attributes are bound every time they are assigned.In a sense, they are just names that adapt to whatever use they are asked to serve.

e) Coercion,type error, type checking, strong typing

Coercion is an automatic conversion of compiler generated code to a legal type.

Type error is the application of an operator to an operand of an inappropriate type.

Type checking is the activity of ensuring that the operands of an operator are of compatible types.

Strong Typing is a new idea in language design which type errors are always detected in the language. This requires that the types of all operands can be determined, either at compile time or at run time. A strongly type language allows the detection, at run time, of uses of the incorrect type values in variables that can store values of more than one type.

f) Name type compatibility, structure type compatibility

Name type compatibility is a compatibility method which means that two variables have compatibility types only if they are in either the same declaration or in declarations that use the same type name.

Structure type compatibility is a compatibility method which means that two variable have compatibility types only if their types have identical structure.

g) Lifetime,scope, static scope, dynamic scope

Lifetime of the variable is the period of time beginning when the procedure is entered and ending when execution of the procedure reaches the end. Lifetime is a temporal concept.

Scope of a program variable is the range of statements in which the variable is visible. It is from its declaration to the end reserve word of the procedure. Scope is a spatial or textual concept.

Static scope is the method of binding names to non local variables. Static scope is thus named because the scope of a variable can be statically determined, that is, prior to execution.

Dynamic scope is a type of scope that is based on calling sequences of subprograms, not on their spatial relationship with each other.Thus the scope can be determined only at run time.

h) Block

Block is a method of creating static scopes inside program unit. Block is a section of code that have its own local variables whose scope is minimized. Such variables are typically stack dynamic, so they have their storage allocated when the section is entered and deallocated when the section is exited.

Part 2

a) What are the design issues for names?

The primary design issues for names are the following:

· What is the maximum length of a name?

· Can connector characters be used in names?

· Are names case sensitive?

· Are the special words reserved words or keywords?

Length

o If too short, they cannot be connotative

o Language examples:

§ FORTRAN I: maximum 6

§ COBOL: maximum 30

§ FORTRAN 90 and ANSI C: maximum 31

§ Ada and Java: no limit, and all are significant

§ C++: no limit, but implementors often impose one

Connectors

o Pascal, Modula-2, and FORTRAN 77 don't allow

o Others do

Case sensitivity

o Disadvantage: readability (names that lookalike are different)

§ worse in C++ and Java because predefined names are mixed case (e.g. IndexOutOfBoundsException)

o C, C++, and Java names are case sensitive

o The names in other languages are not

Special words

o An aid to readability; used to delimit or separate statement clauses

b) In what ways are reserved words better than key words?

A keyword is a word of a programming language that is a special only in certain context. A reserved word is a special word of a programming language that cannot be used as a name. As a language design choice, reserved words are better than keyword because the ability to redefine keywords can lead to readability problems.

For example in FORTRAN whose special words are keywords:

Integer Real
Real Integer

which declare the program variable Real to be a type of Integer type and the variable integer to be of real type.

c) What are the advantages & disadvantages of implicit declarations?

An implicit declaration is a means of associating variables with types through default convention instead of declaration statement. In this case, the first appearance of a variable name in a program constitutes its implicit declaration.

The advantage of implicit declaration is its writability because of its default mechanism while the disadvantage is its reliability because it prevents the compilation process from detecting some typographical and programmer errors.